Artificial intelligence is a revolutionary invention that is affecting practically all aspects of human life and development. As more years pass, we constantly see new adaptations of AI in our homes, offices, factories and cars. AI is well on its way to becoming something as ubiquitous as humans themselves. Although occasionally met with resistance due to the science fiction mentality of robots taking over the world, anyone who looks critically can see that artificial intelligence applications will do more good than harm, and will offer us the key to solving the world’s greatest problems.
What is artificial intelligence?
The term artificial intelligence has grown to be an all-encompassing umbrella term due to the myriad of its practicalities and applications.
Coining a singular definition won’t do this term justice, but for the sake of understanding, a broad scope description of AI will refer to the ability of machines or man-made objects to carry out highly coordinated activities that either mimic or augment human behaviour.
This could cover something as primitive as an automated online assistant (how far we have come to consider this “primitive”!), to something more sophisticated like Siri, self-driving cars, surgery robots and bionic limbs.
It would seem that we have become so accustomed to some of these inventions that we dismiss the science behind it, seeing it as something mundane. When people hear of AI, they think it’s a phenomenon so far from reach.The research areas in Artificial Intelligence are so vast that it cannot be enlisted in one article. There are several articles over artificial intelligence, however, we shall be concentrating more on the Artificial Intelligence applications with respect to the research domain. The research in Artificial Intelligence is being explored recently and widely by academic researchers and practitioners. The areas of research from the following domains have been recently at Top universities for Masters of Information and Data Science and interesting insights have been obtained.
Artificial Intelligence Applications
But AI and Machine Learning applications can be seen around us every day and more advanced technology gets produced constantly. Artificial Intelligence applications have been recently studied by
B Li in 2017 for Intelligent manufacturing
Li, Bo-hu, Bao-cun Hou, Wen-tao Yu, Xiao-bing Lu, and Chun-wei Yang. “Applications of artificial intelligence in intelligent manufacturing: a review.” Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering 18, no. 1 (2017): 86-96.
and H Lu in 2018 for Brain Intelligence
Lu, H., Li, Y., Chen, M., Kim, H., & Serikawa, S. (2018). Brain intelligence: go beyond artificial intelligence. Mobile Networks and Applications, 23(2), 368-375.
Here are some examples of how AI based technologies are causing massive global change:
Artifcial intelligence in medicine have been widely explored in the core branches of medicine. It has been studied and review was created by
P Hamet in 2017
Hamet, P., & Tremblay, J. (2017). Artificial intelligence in medicine. Metabolism, 69, S36-S40.
Artificial intelligence has such a huge impact in medicine that countless lives have been saved and new discoveries on human anatomy and genetics are being made. AI is set to have a major influence on oncology, with the emergence of tumor detectors that can locate cancerous cells from patient slide samples. Another impact can also be seen in gene therapy, where AI algorithms can help detect gene variations in each individual so that treatment can be personalized in a custom-made fashion.
AI scanners are also able to detect patterns in body scans such bone age from an X-ray.
There is an increasing number of AI-based security solutions that will prevent sensitive data on a national level from being breached by hackers. These AI solutions are almost always effective because the artificial intelligence gives back what you input or teach. This is definitely a huge breakthrough for companies, agencies and countries alike as cyber threats would be detected early enough to handle.
Recent research trends and areas for cyber security research in artifcial intelligence has been studied
by M Conti in 2018
Conti, M., Dargahi, T., & Dehghantanha, A. (2018). Cyber Threat Intelligence: Challenges and Opportunities. Cyber Threat Intelligence, 1-6.
There are many hazardous activities which are being carried in world from time to time. These activities could be risky and dangerous enough to be ignored. Our traditional media usually follows the system to disseminate the information about various hazards. This type of information can be communicated through different media for instance, during earthquake, the different instruments can be used to measure the upcoming earthquake and the scale of the earthquake. Such dangerous activity tracking have been explored by
Yampolskiy in 2016
Yampolskiy, R. V. (2016, March). Taxonomy of Pathways to Dangerous Artificial Intelligence. In AAAI Workshop: AI, Ethics, and Society.
Tech experts are working on wiring AI Robots to perform dangerous rescues like bomb defusing, jobs that involve intense heat, toxic materials and even extremely loud noises. This will obviously help save numerous lives.
Social media is one of the most common platform where people talk and disseminate the usual information faster than that of traditional media. The social media have following research domains which have been explored by academic researchers and practitioners from time to time. These research areas include
- Multi-modal Sentiment analysis
Soleymani, M., Garcia, D., Jou, B., Schuller, B., Chang, S. F., & Pantic, M. (2017). A survey of multimodal sentiment analysis. Image and Vision Computing, 65, 3-14.
- Topic Detection and Tracking
Li, W., Joo, J., Qi, H., & Zhu, S. C. (2017). Joint Image-Text News Topic Detection and Tracking by Multimodal Topic And-Or Graph. IEEE Trans. Multimedia, 19(2), 367-381.
- First Story Detection
Srijith, P. K., Hepple, M., Bontcheva, K., & Preotiuc-Pietro, D. (2017). Sub-story detection in Twitter with hierarchical Dirichlet processes. Information Processing & Management, 53(4), 989-1003.
- Event Detection
Garg, M., & Kumar, M. (2016). Review on event detection techniques in social multimedia. Online Information Review, 40(3), 347-361.
- Topic, Trend and Event credibility
Alrubaian, M., Al‐Qurishi, M., Al‐Rakhami, M., Hassan, M. M., & Alamri, A. (2017). Reputation‐based credibility analysis of Twitter social network users. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 29(7), e3873.
- Information Dissemination
Li, D., Zhang, S., Sun, X., Zhou, H., Li, S., & Li, X. (2017). Modeling information diffusion over social networks for temporal dynamic prediction. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 29(9), 1985-1997.
- Community Detection in Social Media
Moosavi, S. A., Jalali, M., Misaghian, N., Shamshirband, S., & Anisi, M. H. (2017). Community detection in social networks using user frequent pattern mining. Knowledge and Information Systems, 51(1), 159-186.
The influence of AI technology can be seen in search engine optimization. Companies like Google, Apple and Amazon have a number of AI frameworks designed to boost their customers’ experience. A notable mention is the AI-based visual search engine feature on platforms like Pinterest.
Automated farming machines that plant crops uniformly are being used in the farming industry. These machines help farmers keep up with the rising demand of food. Processes like tilling, irrigation, planting and fertilizing are also being done by machines with high precision and accuracy.
The most popular artificial intelligence applications for crops and agriculture falls into three categories which includes
- To measure the soil and crops health using Internet of Things based applications
- Many different artificial intelligence and machine learning based tools helps to understand the time to sow and reap the seeds and crops, respectively. This will improve the productivity.
- They used machine learning algorithms to understand the marketing and retail business using streaming data.
Many companies are taking big leaps when it comes to the production of robots that can communicate and interact with humans. One honorary mention is Japan’s Pepper, a companion robot that has the ability to read human emotions, as well as develop or “feel” emotions of its own. Some robots have also been developed to play games like ping pong, for people who need a gaming partner. Other robots have been designed to aid the elderly and the blind in performing quotidian tasks.
The most promising research with respect to emotion mining have been performed by
Wang, Z., Lee, S. Y. M., Li, S., Zhou, G., Wang, Z., Mei Lee, S. Y., … & Zhou, G. (2017). Emotion analysis in code-switching text with joint factor graph model. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing (TASLP), 25(3), 469-480.
Banking and finance
Banks use AI systems to run financial transactions and trade. Like cyber breaches, AI algorithms can detect fluctuations in bank charges. This robotics is also used in online trading, stock investments, property management and bookkeeping. Gone are the days where a teller would have to tediously perform these tasks while customers impatiently wait in line. Moreover, research areas in finance field have been explored by potential researchers
Wimmer, H., & Rada, R. (2018). Applying Artificial Intelligence to Financial Investing. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition (pp. 1-14). IGI Global.
Other fields where the influence of AI technology can be found include:
With respect to business the the fields discussed above are important. The movement of money and products provides huge range of small modules to be handles by artificial intelligence and machine learning based applications. These applications are useful iff the data is obtained from the customer end as well as the clients end. This data is processed to get the information which can be converted to actions. These actions are performed on the basis of useful insights. One of the path breaking research article is
Ransbotham, S., Kiron, D., Gerbert, P., & Reeves, M. (2017). Reshaping Business With Artificial Intelligence: Closing the Gap Between Ambition and Action. MIT Sloan Management Review, 59(1).
There are huge number of soldiers who are fighting day and night on the borders of India. Although there are huge number of military applications using artificial intelligence and machine learning, still there exist need to accelerate this great initiative and speed up the things. With this, we pitch the NEED OF ADVANCED MILITARY WEAPONS for military persons.
Fawkes, A. J. (2017). Developments in Artificial Intelligence and Opportunities and Challenges for Military Modeling and Simulation. In Proceedings of the 2017 NATO M&S Symposium (pp. 11-1).
Mobile and internet technology (The Internet of Things of IoT)
The Internet of Things have been widely studied recently for different applications including bag theft detection, automation of electrical appliances etc. The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing new developments in various application domains, such as the Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous System of Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internet of Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc. that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influence represents new development and deployment challenges in different areas such as seamless platform integration, context based cognitive network integration, new mobile sensor/actuator network paradigms, things identification (addressing, naming in IoT) and dynamic things discoverability and many others.
Vermesan, O., Bröring, A., Tragos, E., Serrano, M., Bacciu, D., Chessa, S., … & Simoens, P. (2017). Internet of robotic things: converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms.
As indicated by Google Maps, the transportation is the prime need of every person who need to move from one place to another. Different application domains with respect to transportation include
- Identifying congestion
- En-routing alternative routes
- Calculating time dynamically with respect to traffic reports
- Sensing accident prone areas based on historical data
The potential research on artificial intelligence application domain of Transportation has been done by
Wang, F. Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence and intelligent transportation: driving into the 3rd axial age with its. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, 9(4), 6-9.
As mentioned earlier, Artificial Intelligence can be found on so many applications, all in a bid to make our world a better place. A recent technological development is the Artificial Intelligence application to sports such as basketball, javelin and swimming.
In conclusion, thinking that artificial intelligence will reduce the labour force is counterproductive.
AI is taking a giant leap and it will definitely impact our future in ways we can only imagine.
This is because computational techniques keep being polished and reinvented. The time is coming when AI machines will be completely interwoven into our daily lives, making things easier, more efficient and life-changing. Artificial intelligence is booming in the industry and in terms of research. Aspirants are looking forward to pursue their doctorate/ Ph.D in Artificial Intelligence applications based research in computer science. It will always affect how we do things, how we perceive and interact with our world.
Happy Learning AI!